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Shovel Ready: Razing Hopes, History, and a Sense of Place:
Chapter Notes

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[This information is from pp. 145-154 of Shovel Ready: Razing Hopes, History, and a Sense of Place: Rethinking Schenectady's Downtown Strategies, a master's thesis in city planning by Christopher Patrick Spencer (MIT, 2001), and is reproduced with his permission. It is in the Schenectady Collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at Schdy R 711 Spe.]

Chapter 1

  1. Sam Bass Warner, Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston 1879-1900 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962; 1978), 15-16.
  2. Sam Bass Warner, Streetcar Suburbs: The Process of Growth in Boston 1879-1900 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1962; 1978), 15-16.
  3. James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Fall of America's Man-Made Landscape (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 87.
  4. Robert Fogelson, Downtown: A Troubled History (Not yet published: 2001), 21.
  5. Edward K. Muller, "Distinctively Downtown" Geographic Magazine, November, 1980, 751.
  6. James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Fall of America's Man-Made Landscape (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 86-92.
  7. Bernard J. Frieden and Lynne B. Sagalyn, Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989), 65.
  8. Jon C. Teaford, Urban Renewal and Its Aftermath, Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 11, Issue 2, Fannie Mae Foundation, p. 448. (From Web, accessed 5/9/01). <http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_ 1102_teaford.pdf>
    [<http://www.knowledgeplex.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_1102_teaford.pdf> as of 10/16/2010]
  9. Bernard J. Frieden and Lynne B. Sagalyn, Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989), 15-16.

    The program was made possible through Title I of the Housing Act of 1949 [free PDF viewer required] and administered by the Federal Housing Administration [FHA] which was changed in the mid-1960s to the U.S. Housing and Urban Development [HUD]. In the late 1960s the funding of the program shifted from being project based to an annual basis for cities and became known as the Neighborhood Development Program. "In 1974, the Community Development Block Grant [CDBG] was initiated. Seven separate grant programs, including urban renewal, were wrapped into the Program and annual grants were made to cities on the basis of poverty, age of housing, etc., to do a variety of community development programs…" (From <http://www.sada.net/history.html> [not available 10/16/2010]

  10. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, (Cambridge, Mass: MIT, 1964), 12.
  11. Bernard J. Frieden and Lynne B. Sagalyn, Downtown, Inc.: How America Rebuilds Cities (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1989), 65.

    According to the authors the first climate controlled indoor mall opened up in Edina, a suburb of Minneapolis, in 1956.

  12. James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Fall of America's Man-Made Landscape (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1993), 119.
  13. Scott L. Bottles, Los Angeles and the Automobile: The Making of a Modern City, (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 52-90.
  14. This note was omitted.

Chapter 2

  1. Larry Hart, Schenectady, a Pictorial History (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 13.
  2. Larry Hart, Tales of Old Schenectady, Volume I: The Formative Years (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 19.
  3. Don Hulett, The 1690 Massacre of Schenectady, Part II (The Scribner: The Official Newsletter of the Efner History Research Library, 6 February 1998, Vol. III).
  4. Larry Hart, Schenectady, a Pictorial History (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 27.
  5. Larry Hart, Schenectady, a Pictorial History (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 27.
  6. Larry Hart, Tales of Old Schenectady, Volume I: The Formative Years (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 93.

Chapter 3

  1. Edward K. Muller, "Distinctively Downtown," Geographic Magazine, November, 1980, 747.
  2. Merriam Webster, Merriam Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (Springfield, Mass: Merriam-Webster, Inc. Publishers, 1989)
  3. Rober Venturi, Learning From Las Vegas (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1972).
  4. Robert D. McCracken, Las Vegas: The Great American Playground (Expanded ed. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1997), 98.
  5. Robert D. McCracken, Las Vegas: The Great American Playground (Expanded ed. Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1997), 110-111.
  6. David Littlejohn, The Real Las Vegas: Life Beyond the Strip (Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1999), 288.
  7. Tom Gorman, "Real Downtown? Vegas Bucks the Odds: Modernist City Bets on Tradition for a New Center," Los Angeles Times, (also Boston Globe, 8 April 2001).
  8. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities (Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1961; 1992), 187-190;
  9. James Howard Kunstler, The Geography of Nowhere: The Rise and Decline of America's Man-Made Landscape (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1993), 120.

Chapter 4

  1. Robert L. Wrigley, "The Plan of Chicago" in Introduction to Planning History in the United States (ed. Krueckeberg, New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research), 60-61.
  2. Harland Bartholomew, Preliminary Report on Major Street, Transit, Park and Playgrounds, 1924 (Developed for the City of Schenectady, N.Y.).
  3. Harland Bartholomew, Schenectady Preliminary Report of the City Planning Commission, 1924 (Developed for the City of Schenectady, N.Y.).
  4. The firm is still operating under the name Parsons Harland Bartholomew & Associates. "Harland Bartholomew & Associate (HBA) is a unit of The Parson Corporation, an international planning, engineering and construction group serving the public sector and the energy, transportation, natural resource, environmental, space and defense industries." (From http://ceres.ca.gov/tahoe/hba/)

    "Parsons HBA is recognized as one of the leading firms in the United States in the preparation of Comprehensive and General Plans. The firm's broad experience extends to policy planning, growth management, central area planning, redevelopment, historic preservation, regulatory measures, and capital facilities programs." (From http://ceres.ca.gov/tahoe/hba/services.html accessed 5/11/01.)

  5. Harland Bartholomew, Schenectady Preliminary Report of the City Planning Commission, 1924 (Developed for the City of Schenectady, N.Y.).
  6. Harland Bartholomew, The Comprehensive City Plan for Schenectady, New York, 1948 (Developed for the City of Schenectady, N.Y.).
  7. Robert L. Wrigley, "The Plan of Chicago" in Introduction to Planning History in the United States (ed. Krueckeberg, New Brunswick, N.J.: Center for Urban Policy Research), 64.
  8. Town of Tomorrow Committee, City Planning is Our Business: A Primer on Planning for the Town of Tomorrow (Schenectady: N.Y.: Published by the Town of Tomorrow Committee, 1947), 6.
  9. Union-Star, "10-Year Plan Set for Civic Rehabilitation" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 13 January 1947).
  10. Union-Star, "TOT Plan Seen Taking Definite Form By Summer" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 1 January 1947).
  11. Union-Star, "TOT Plan Seen Taking Definite Form By Summer" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 16 January 1948).
  12. Schenectady Gazette, "Area Being Considered for Rehabilitation Project: Sees Little Difficulty In Finances of New Plan" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 14 January, 1947).
  13. Union-Star, "TOT Plan Means Less Taxes, Richer City, Meeting Told" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 19 June 1947).
  14. Union-Star, "10-Year Plan Set for Civic Rehabilitation" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 13 January 1947).
  15. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1964), 3-4.
  16. Jon C. Teaford, Urban Renewal and Its Aftermath, Housing Policy Debate, Vol. 11, Issue 2, Fannie Mae Foundation, p. 444. (From Web, accessed 5/9/01). <http://www.fanniemaefoundation.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_ 1102_teaford.pdf>
    [<http://www.knowledgeplex.org/programs/hpd/pdf/hpd_1102_teaford.pdf> as of 10/16/2010]
  17. Union-Star, "City Planners, FHA Disagree Over Housing in City Hall Area" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 23 July 1953).
  18. Robert A. Beauregard, Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of U.S. Cities, (Oxford: UK; Cambridge, Mass: B. Blackwell, 1993), 143.
  19. Schenectady Gazette, "Redeveloping Slum Areas is Thorny Problem in City" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 20 October 1952).
  20. Barrie Needham, How Cities Work: An Introduction (1st ed. Pergamon International Library of Science, Technology, and Social Studies, Oxford; Elmsford,: NY Pergamon Press, 1977), 15-16.
  21. Schenectady Gazette, "Says City Seeks Cheap Prices in 22 Blocks" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette).
  22. Robert A. Beauregard, Voices of Decline: The Postwar Fate of U.S. Cities, (Oxford: UK; Cambridge, Mass: B. Blackwell, 1993), 136-7.
  23. Schenectady Gazette, "Redeveloping Slum Areas is Thorny Problem in City" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 20 October 1952).
  24. John C. Weicher, Urban Renewal: National Program for Local Problems (Washington,: American Enterprise Institute for Public Policy Research, 1972), 6.
  25. Schenectady Gazette, "Families' Resettlement Top Priority: St. Louis" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 4 October 1955).
  26. Schenectady Gazette, "Says City Seeks Cheap Price In 22 Blocks" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 27 February 1947).
  27. Union-Star, "Council Seeks U. S. Slum Clearance Aid" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 28 December 1949).
  28. Union-Star, "Council Approves Redevelopment Project: Federal Go-ahead Signal is Still Needed" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 12 October 1954).
  29. Union-Star, "Big Project Headache: Business Use or Not" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 19 February 1958).
  30. Schenectady Gazette, "Isabella Hits GOP's Urban Site Delay" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 31 October 1963).
  31. Schenectady Gazette, "City Urban Renewal Project Finds Snags" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 3 March 1963).
  32. Schenectady Gazette, "Stratton Sees Folly in New Urban Project" (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 9 August 1957).

Chapter 5

  1. John Forester, Planning in the Face of Power (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 137.
  2. John Forester, Planning in the Face of Power (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 49-50.
  3. John Forester, Planning in the Face of Power (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1989), 49-50.

Chapter 6

  1. Schenectady Gazette, "City Failure to Act in Slum Clearing May Cost $151,000," (Schenectady, NY: Schenectady Gazette, 2 February 1950).
  2. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer, A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, p. 64.
  3. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer, A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, 161.
  4. Union-Star, "Real Estate Board Back City Hall Area Clearance Project" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Union-Star, 10 February 1950).
  5. Martin Anderson, The Federal Bulldozer: A Critical Analysis of Urban Renewal, 1949-1962, 162-64.
  6. Larry Hart, Schenectady, a Pictorial History (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 197.

Chapter 7

  1. Larry Hart, "Pink Gardner Champ in Site Above Veterans Park — Old Armory Headquarters of Sports Buffs," (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 22 February 1967).

    United States Department of the Interior, National Park Service, National Register of Historic Places, Registration form for the Schenectady Armory.

  2. Union-Star, "Claims City Shortchanged — Duci Urges Rejection of Armory-Airport Site" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 18 May 1972).
  3. John Strachan, "FOCUS Reaffirms Opposition to Demolition of Ellis Building" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 18 September 1974).
  4. Art Isabel, "N.Y. Central Colonie Depot Site Gets Commission OK — PSC OKs Closing of City Rail Station" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 12 October 1967).
  5. Schenectady Gazette, "Penn Central Station Mortgages May Snag Parking Lot Plans" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 29 August 1970).
  6. Schenectady Gazette, "The Walls Came Tumblin' Down" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 17 July 1971).
  7. Alan Jay Alpern, "Downtown Developers Want Build-Lease Deal: Any Amtrak Station Site is Compatible" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 25 February 1976).
  8. Matthew Roy, "Old Union Station Clock May Begin Ticking Once Again: Jurczynski Wants Timepiece for New Transportation Center" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Daily Gazette, 20 February 1999).
  9. Rudledge Carter, "Ellis Block Facing Auctioneer" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 15 November 1971).
  10. Rudledge Carter, "State-Erie Parking Lot Wins Approval" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 19 October 1971).
  11. John Strachan, "Urban Renewal Gets Title to Ellis Building" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 10 July 1974).
  12. John Strachan, "URA Allows FOCUS 60 Days for Ellis Building Reuse Plan" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 7 August 1974).
  13. Barbara Hayden, "Save Historic Ellis Building, Residents' Cry" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 15 November 1974).
  14. Dennis Law, "It's the Last Stand for Schenectady's Ellis Building, to be Torn Down Soon" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 11 February 1975).
  15. John Strachan, "Ellis Building Slated for Wreckers' Ball" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 14 February 1975).
  16. Barbara Hayden, "The End Near at Strand: Its Heroes Left Long Ago" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 18 November, 1970).
  17. Union-Star, "Strand Site Bidding Seen Keen" (Albany, N.Y.: Union-Star, 31 January, 1972).

    Jim Walker, "Nott Terrace School May Be Demolished" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 23 July 1974).

  18. Frank J. Duci, Former Mayor of Schenectady. Interview by author, 26 March 2001.
  19. Frank J. Duci, Former Mayor of Schenectady. Interview by author, 26 March 2001.
  20. John Runfola, "Rink Project to Open Despite Lack of Lease" (Albany, N.Y.: Knickerbocker News, 18 October 1979).
  21. Marv Cermak, "Rising Rink Expenses Could Leave Schenectady Skating on Thin Ice" (Albany, N.Y.: Knickerbocker News, 5 February 1980).
  22. John Marcille, "400 Block to Become Elegant Center" (Schenectady, N.Y.: Schenectady Gazette, 31 January 1978)
  23. John Runfola, "Schenectady OKs Funds for 400 Block" (Albany, N.Y.: Knickerbocker News, 11 October 1978).
  24. Karen Johnson, Former Mayor of Schenectady. Interview by author, 28 March 2001.

Chapter 8

  1. Kevin Lynch, A Theory of Good City Form, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1981), 268-269.
  2. Jane Jacobs, The Death and Life of Great American Cities, (Vintage Books ed. New York: Vintage Books, 1992), 152.
  3. Stewart Brand, How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They're Built, (New York, NY: Viking, 1994), 24.
  4. Heywood T. Sanders, "Convention Center Follies," The Public Interest, Summer 1998, 58-72.
  5. Quantum Dynamics, Inc., Metroplex Business Strategy Recommendation, presented February 16, 2000, http://www.schenectadymetroplex.org/Metroplex_Business_Strategy.htm Accessed Wed, March 21, 2001 [not available 10/16/2010].
  6. Allan B. Jacobs, Great Streets, (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993), 286.

Chapter 9

  1. Hunter Interests, Inc., Sasaki Associates, Synthesis Architects, O. R. George & Associates, Downtown Schenectady Master Plan, November 1999.
  2. Larry Hart, Tales of Old Schenectady, Volume I: The Formative Years (Scotia: New York, Old Dorp Books), 137.
  3. Schenectady Metroplex Development Authority 2000 Annual Report
  4. The Knickerbocker News, "Schenectady Office Complex Plan Advances", Knickerbocker News, 25 November 1986.
  5. John Manning, Chairman of Metroplex Authority, interview by author, 26 March 2001.
  6. Kevin Lynch, City Sense and City Design (Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press, 1990) 383-391.

Chapter 10

  1. Jim Denney, Former Mayor of Scotia. Interview by author, 30 March 2001.
  2. Michelle Baldwin, Property Manager of Schaffer Heights. Interview by author, 27 March 2001.

Findings and Conclusions

The notes for this section were omitted.

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