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A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times
8: Indian Wars on the Border, 1662-1713

Prof. Jonathan Pearson

Go back to: Adult Freeholders | ahead to: Burning of Schenectady

[This information is from pp. 231-243 of A History of the Schenectady Patent in the Dutch and English Times; being contributions toward a history of the lower Mohawk Valley by Jonathan Pearson, A. M. and others, edited by J. W. MacMurray, A. M., U. S. A. (Albany, NY: J. Munsell's Sons, Printers, 1883). It is in the Schenectady Collection of the Schenectady County Public Library at Schdy R 974.744 P36, and copies are also available for borrowing.]

[Copies of this book are available from the Schenectady County Historical Society.]

[The original version uses assorted typographical symbols to represent footnotes. To improve legibility, the online version uses the form (page number - note number.)]

In 1614 a handful of Dutch traders ascended the Hudson river and erected their trading post on what is now the site of the city of Albany. The five nations then possessed all the territory north and west of this point to the St. Lawrence and the lakes. This powerful confederacy was the terror and scourge of their neighbors; they annihilated or absorbed the Hurons, the Neuters, Dinondaties and other lesser tribes, and from the year 1615 when Champlain uniting his forces with the Algonquins and Hurons attacked the Mohawks, (Five Nations,) hoping to force them to a peace with his Indian allies, down to the close of the French war in 1763, the Iroquois carried on an intermittent warfare with the French of Canada. On the contrary, with the Dutch, and after them the English, they always maintained peace and good fellowship, "keeping bright the chain of friendship" by annual conferences, trade, gifts and other good offices. Why then the necessity of fortifying all important points along the frontier and the constant and painful apprehension of the border settlers? Firstly, the, peaceful conduct and intentions of the Iroquois towards the Dutch and English could never be fully trusted. The Indian character was fickle and untrustworthy. So long as he was dependent on the white man for powder, rum and duffels, he maintained an interested friendship. From the French he received his religion, from the English his supplies. Secondly, whenever England and France were at war, their colonies in America were at war also, and it became necessary to fortify and garrison the frontier towns.

All settlements in the valley of the upper Hudson were made on this river and the Mohawk. Here was the gate to the Province on the side of Canada. This once carried, New York city must succumb and New England become isolated. The danger line was along the banks of the Mohawk and the shores of the Hudson above Haalve-Maan [Waterford].

Hence it was proposed by Governor Clinton in 1746, to build a line of block houses west from Fort Massachusetts to the Mohawk castle at Fort Hunter.

The chief settlements and fortifications along this line were at Halve-Maan, Canastagioone [Niskayuna], Saratoga [Schuylerville], Schenectady, Claas Graven's Hook [Crane's village] and later Amsterdam, Caughnawaga [Fonda], Canajoharie, Palatine and German flats. The period of greatest danger and alarm were the ten years prior to the peace of Ryswick in 1697; — "the war of the Spanish succession," 1701-1713, which was followed by the peace of Utrecht and more than twenty-five years of comparative quiet; — "the war of the Austrian succession," 1743-8, commonly called the "Old French war," and the "Second French war," 1753-60, when the French power forever ceased on this continent to create any serious alarm.

During a period therefore of more than seventy years, — 1658 to 1760, — the English provinces were more than half the time in a state of war or painful apprehension.

No formidable body of Frenchmen, it is true, ever crossed the Mohawk but once, — in 1690, — but parties of their Indian allies, in squads of five to twenty, were constantly sent out to skulk along the border and pick off unwary husbandmen. Every dwelling along this danger line was constructed for defence as well as for habitation. Moveable blockhouses were placed in the field for temporary shelter, and the farmer labored with his musket by his side; yet, in spite of every precaution suggested by experience, scarcely a year passed in which some households were not bereft of one or more of their members.

Less than four years after Schenectady was settled, occurred the first alarm to the inhabitants.

M. De Courcelles, Governor of Canada, on the 29th Dec., 1665, began a march from Montreal, with six hundred volunteers, "to seeke out their inveterate ennemyes called the Mohauke Indians, to take revenge upon them for the severall murthers and spoyles, which the Barbarians had for many yeares exercised in Canada." The snow was four feet deep; the soldiers marched on snow shoes, whilst their provisions were drawn on "slight sledges" by mastiff dogs. On the 9th of February, they encamped within two miles of Schenectady, having been misled by their guide. That evening "60 of their best Fusileers being let into an ambuscade by the Mohaks lost 11 men besides divers others" who were wounded. Governor Courcelles applied to the inhabitants for provisions which were supplied according to the "best accommodations ye Poore village afforded," but refused shelter for his men, fearing if "hee had brought his weary and halfe starved people within the smell of a chimney corner," he could not keep them from straggling or running away.

Seven of his wounded were sent to Albany. "The Dutch bores carryed to the camp such provisions as they had, especially peaz and bread of which a good quantity was bought." On the 12th February, the French began their return to Canada. (233-1)

Three years later, to wit, in 1669, another Indian battle was fought on the western borders of the town.

In August, Caughnawaga [Fonda], a stockaded village of the Mohawks, was attacked by the river Indians or Mahikanders. After an obstinate resistance the latter were repulsed and retired. The Mohawks descended the river in their canoes and attacked the retreating foe at a place called Kinaquariones and put them to flight. (233-2)

In the Indian deed of 1673 for the township of Schenectady, the westerly bounds were "Kinaquariones, where the last Battell wass between the Mohoakx and the North [river] Indians." (233-3)

Although England and France were at peace with each other for nearly twenty years from this time, their provinces in America were unquiet and suspicious.

The intermittent warfare carried on by the French and the Iroquois was a constant source of apprehension to the English provinces. The latter claimed the Five Nations as subjects of the English crown, and their territory as part of the province of New York, and as such that they should not be attacked without information thereof being first given to the Governor of New York.

The French denied the authority of the English King over either the people or lands of the Iroquois, at the same time claiming for the French crown the valleys of the St. Lawrence, of the great lakes and of the Mississippi, and the innumerable tribes of natives inhabiting this vast region. The French, moreover, charged the English not only with furnishing the Indians with muskets and powder but with inciting them to war upon the French and their allies in Canada. Such being the feeling of the two peoples, there remained nothing but suspicion, want of confidence and recriminations between them.

In 1666 Governor Nicolls, writing to the commissaries at Albany, highly commended them for their care in the preservation of His Majesty's interest, "in these times of Difficulty with the ambitious French," promising to have "all the souldiers at the Sopes ready upon an houres warning." (234-1) So in writing to Arent Van Curler of Schenectady, in the winter of 1666, after commending him for his "conduct in these troubles," hopes the French will be discouraged from attempting "to disturbe yow and the Maquaes." (234-2)

Governor Winthrop also in writing to Secretary Arlington in 1667, says "Wee know the pretence of those French forces uppon the lake behind us against a nation of the Indians called the Mohaukes with whom they are at war; but wee have good cause to be jealous of there great designes." (234-3)

In 1670, Governor Lovelace in a letter to Secretary Williamson writes, "but that which comes near to us is the incroachment of the French in Canada, * * they pretent it is no more but to advance the kingdom of Christ when it is to be suspected it is rather the kingdome of his most Christian Majtie." (234-4)

In 1678 the country was "much allarmed with news of a French war," thougb nothing came of it. (234-5) In 1685 Governor Dongan wrote that "the French are more quiet. Wee have a very good trade this year and shall have much better if wee take but the same care as the ffrench." (234-6)

In this long peace, Schenectady slowly gained in population and agricultural wealth and comforts. Some trade too, was had surreptitiously with the Indians. But now in 1687, came the news of an attack by the French upon the Senecas, which caused great uneasiness to the people of the province. The Senecas were furnished with arms and ammunition by the Provincial authorities, but with no active aid.

As early as 1684 and subsequently, Governor Dongan and M. M. De La Barre and Denonville had an exasperating correspondence in relation to the Senecas, the former claiming sovereignty over the Five Nations, the latter denying it.

The winter of 1687/8, was looked forward to with apprehension. When the Hudson was closed by ice all communication with New York was cut off. It was then that the French taking advantage of the helplessness of the border settlements sent out their marauding expeditions. Governor Dongan writing at New York, Sept. 12, 1687, says, "some messages have come to my hands from Albany of their apprehensions of the French, which obliges me to carry up thither 200 men besides the garrison and go and stay there this winter and to get together five or six hundred of the Five Nations about Albany and Schenectady." (235-1)

The gathering of these savages about Schenectady was always a source of annoyance to the inhabitants. They were given to drink and were then reckless and quarrelsome, many complaints were from time to time made of these disorders to the Governor.

In Sept., 1687, Maj. Peter Schuyler says, "we find that the selling of strong Liquor to the Indians is a great hindrance to all designs they take in hand; they stay a drinking continually at Schenectady." (235-2)

On the same day Robert Livingston wrote to the Governor from Albany that "Keman came here last night and his ———— brought the six prisoners allong with him al women, which has occasioned his so long stay, the seventh being a boy, is at Cayouge, and will be here in a few days; the prisoners att his house at Shinnectady, being wearied could not reach this place." (235-3)

On the 5th Sept., Livingston wrote again that there are 70 Maquase "lying at Schenectady, who are thought to be disinclined to go out until they heard what the Governor would do with one Janitie." (235-4)

Not long before this Arnout Cornelise Vielè, the interpreter, traveling to Otawawa on a trading expedition was taken prisoner by the French. He was held in great esteem by the Indians because he "hath don good service for us in travelling up and down in our Country, and wee having a French prisoner according to our custome doe deliver him to the family of Arnout in his stead and Room to wash of the tears of his wife and children." (235-5) This gift was made by the Mohawk sachems to the mayor and aldermen of Albany. At this time — Sept. 9, 1687, — they had "at Schennectady a company of one hundered and thirty men that goe out tomorrow toward the Lake of Canada [Lake Champlain], to do all the mischeife they can against the French." (236-1) On the 14th and 15th Sept., the Onondagas held a council with the mayor and aldermen at Albany, by whom they were advised on account of the threatening aspect of affairs the coming winter, to send their wives and children to Cattskil and other places on the Hudson, "and let none stay in the Castles butt such as are fit for warr." They were also advised that the Governor "desired a 100 men from the Sinnekes, 50 from the Cayouges, 60 from the Onondages, 50 from the Oneydes and 40 from the Maquasse, to be at Sohannectada this winter to joyne with the forces of his Excely." (236-2)

The year 1688 was generally quiet and barren of exciting events. Dongan kept up a paper war with Denonville until relieved in the spring by Gov. Andros. So long as James the Second occupied the throne peace between France and England was reasonably assured. Both Louis and James were bent upon converting England to the Romish faith.

In December, 1688, the latter abdicated the throne and fled to France; whereupon Louis espoused his cause and furnished material aid in his efforts at reconquering his kingdom. In the spring of 1689 "rumours of War with France" alarmed the inhabitants of the Provinces, and incited them to preparations for defence. On the receipt of the news of the revolution in England and of the accession of William and Mary to the throne, a miniature revolution was attempted on this side. Governor Andros was imprisoned, his Lieutenant, Nicholson, departed and in New York city the train bands took possession of the fort under the lead of Leisler, dispossessing the Governor's Council and setting up a more popular government.

All this done avowedly in the interest of William and Mary and the Protestant succession, was bitterly opposed by the more wealthy and intelligent portion of the community.

In Albany the Anti-Leislerians held their opponents in check, but parties here in Schenectady were so nearly balanced in influence, if not in numbers, that neither had the power to act energetically in fortifying the village and preparing to repel the anticipated irruption of the French. The Leislerians "blessed the Great God of heaven and earth for deliverance from Tyranny, Popery and Slavery" through the happy accession of William and Mary to the throne; — the Anti-Leislerians complained that "Fort James was seized by the Rable," whose ill and rash proceedings "hardly one person of sense and Estate within the City [of New York] do countenance." During these unhappy divisions rumors were rife that the Indians of the Five Nations "were very jealous which if not prevented would cause great mischiefe" and "that the French from Cadaragua [Kingston, Canada] were comeing over with 1000 men and a great number of Indians."

In August, 1689, the Five Nations made a destructive raid upon Montreal, killing several hundred persons and holding the place until October. Retaliation was naturally to be expected. The border settlements, as winter approached when relief from New York would be cut off, cast about for help.

The general apprehension of an attack by the French led to a kind of committee of safety called "the Convention," which convened in Albany from time to time to watch the progress of events and prepare for defence. This Convention was composed of the mayor and aldermen of the city, and the magistrates and chief military officers of the country. They were unanimously opposed to Leisler and would obey none of his orders. Many persons during the summer of 1689 meditated and prepared to flee to a place of greater safety, which led to the following proclamation published by the justices of the peace, forbidding all persons to depart from the country.

A Proclamation

"Whereas we are credibly informed yt diverse persones upon ye late news of ye approach of ye french and there Indians are making Preparations to Transport themselfes out of this County by which means and bad Example of such Timeorous and Cowardly People others will be Discouraged to stay and Defend there majts Interest in this Frontier part of Ye Province, and Foreasmuch there is no setled government for ye p'sent in this Province, and that thereby it is a duty Incumbent upon us to Prevent any Danger and Inconvenience yt might happen ye Inhabitants of our County wh may arise by Suffering men to Depart yt are able to do there majts service if any attempt should be made wee Therefore doe hereby Declare That no Person or Persones (except masters of sloops & Boats) being fit & able to bear arms who have been setled or liveing in this county for these six monthes last past shall in ye space of three monthes Presume to Depart or absent themselfs out of this County of Albany whither they are under ye Roll or List of ye Respective Captns or not without a Passe from one Justice of ye Peace of this County upon ye Penalty to be Esteemed, Pursued & followed after as fugitives Cowards, Runnaways & Vagabonds & as such to be Prosecuted by ye utmost severity of ye Law, & yt all People take notice thereof accordingly, given at ye Cetty Hall of Albany ye 7th day of August 1689 in ye first year of there Majets Reign." — Doc. Hist., II, 48.

The following proceedings of the convention during the month of September, 1689, show very clearly the agitation of the public mind, and that the attack of the French on Schenectady which took place the following February was not unexpected.

"Att a Convention &c., att ye Citty Hall (Albany) ye 4th day of September, * * * 1689.

* * * * * *

"Resolved, since there is such Eminent Danger Threatened by ye French of Canida and there Praying Indians (238-1) to come into this County to kill and Destroy there Majss Subjects that there be Immediately An Express sent doune to Capt. Leysler and ye Rest of ye Militia Officers of ye Citty and County of New Yorke for assistance of one hundred men or more for ye secureing of there Majss Fort and ye out Plantations of this County as also a Recruite of six hundred weight of Pouder and foure hundred Ball Vist 200 Two Pounders and 200 four Pounders with some match and one hundred hand grenadoes out of there Majss Stores and Two hundred Pounds out of there Majss Revenue, which we understand is dayly collected by them for to employ ye Maquase & oyr Indians in there Majss service for ye Securing ye frontier Parts of this County from any Incursions of sd Indians or French.

* * * * * *

"Upon ye news yt three People should be kild at Bartel Vrooman's at Sarachtoge by ye Indians.

"Resolved by ye Convention yt Robt Sanders & Eghbert Tuenise forthwith goe to Sarachtoge to lye there till further order, whither any mischeefe be done there or nott & yt they goe themselfs with sd Indians to Sarachtoge where Leift Jochim Staets will stay there Comeing & if Eghbert be not at ye farm yt he take any oyr whom he shall think Convenient.

* * * * * *

"Resolved that there be a fort made about ye house of Bartel Vrooman at Sarachtoge & Twelve men Raised out of ye Two Companies of ye Citty and 2 Companies of ye County to Lye there upon pay, who are to have 12d a day besides Provisions and some Indians of Skachkook to be there with them to goe out as Skouts in yt Part of ye County.

* * * * * *

"Understanding by ye Commission officers of Schennectady that there is no settlement there how or what way they are to Behave themselfs if ye enemy should come, since they can not agree amongst themselves in yt particular.

"Resolved that Mr Dirk Wesseles and Capt Johannes Wendel Justice of ye Peace goe thither & Conveen ye Company together and consult what measures they are to take upon occasion if an enemy should come, to ye end there may be unity in such extremityes & ye Inhabitants there are ordered to submitt to what ye sd gentn and ye head officers of there Toune shall Conclude upon, upon there oun Perill.

"Resolved since we have Recd Certain Information of Some Praying Canida Indians lately taken by our Maquase that ye french Design to send out there Indians and french to kill and Destroy there Majts Subjects of this County that Dirk Tuenise Esqr. * * * goe to ye County of Ulster for ye assistance of 25 or 30 men to be Ready upon occasion if any attaque or Incursion should be made on ye frontiers of this County. * * *

"By ye mayor aldermen and Commonality ye Citty of Albany and ye Justice of ye Peace of ye County aforesaid.

"Whereas the selling and giving of Strong Drink to ye Indians at this present juncture is founde by Experience Extreame Dangerous insomuch yt divers Inhabitants of Schenectady and Elsewhere have mad there Complaint that there is no living if ye Indians be not kept from Drinks, Wee doe therefore hereby strikly Prohibite & forbid in the name of King William and queen Mary yt no Inhabitants of the Citty and County of Albany doe sell or give any Rum, Brandy, Strong Liquor, or Beer to any Indian or Indians upon any pretence whatsoever upon ye Penalty of Two monthes Imprisonment without Bails or main prise & more over a fine of five Pounds toties quoties, ye Proofe here of to be made as is Incerted in ye Proclamation Prohibiting ye Selling of Strong Drink dated ye 21th day of May 1689 which is by Proof or Purgation by oath, always Provided yt it shall and may be in ye Power of ye Mayor aldermen & Commonality of ye said Citty if they see cause to give any Smal quality of Rum to any Sachim who come here about Publick Businesse, any Prohibition aboved in any manner notwithstanding, given att ye Citty hall of Albany ye 12th day of September, 1689.

"Att a Convention &c Sept. 17th, 1689.

"The messenger Johannes Bleeker, who was sent Express to N: Yorke with a letter to Capt. Leysler * * * being Returned * * (Reports that Leisler would have nothing) "to doe wth ye Civill Power, he was a Souldier and would write to a Soulder."

"Leisler wrote to Captains Wendell & Bleeker, and the Convention were forced to send to Sopus for Indians to act as Schouts, & proposed to send for men from New England. Gov. Treat of Connecticut, agreed to, & did, send them eighty men under the Command of Capt. Bull, but requested County and City to pay the officers wages.

"Upon which this following was Resolved Capt Sander Glen Leifts Van Eps Ens: Johannes Sanders Glen, and Sweer Teunise doe vote in ye Behalf of ye Toune of Schennectady yt ye men may be sent for from Coneticut and that they will bear there Proportiones of ye Cherge of ye Officers there wages and maintain them accordingly, Provided they be under Command and obey such orders and Instructions as they shall Receive from time to time from ye Convention of this City and County and in ye time of there not sitting to ye mayr & aldermen of this Citty.

"It is the opinion of ye Convention yt ye 8 men still att Sarachtoge doe Remain there til further order." — Mortgage Book B.

Schenectady equally with Albany was rent by party spirit, the habitants being divided into Leislerians and Anti-Leislerians. Leisler promised the people the same privileges as Albany, to wit: those of trading with the Indians hitherto forbidden them and the right of bolting flour. (240-1)

This was a strong bid for public favor, but Adam Vrooman, who was addressed as Leisler's agent very modestly and prudently declined the honor.

"Memorandum that on ye 10th Day of November [1689] being Sunday,

"The following letter was Sent by Adam Vrooman of Shinnectady to ye Mayr which Milborne had seat to him to warne all ye People there forthwith to come to Albany and Receive there Rights Priviledges and Liberties in such manner as if the governmt of King James ye 2nd never had been, or any of his arbitrary Commissions or what is Illegally done by his governours never had been done or Past, which Letter followz in Terminis: —


"Whereas I am authorized by the Honble Delegates or members elected at Free and Publick Election of the Freemen and Respective counties of Province of N. York and Military Council thereof, to arrange and settle the affairs of the City and County of Albany according to the Constitution of the other Counties of the Province aforesaid pursuant to the interest of His Majesty our Sovereign Lord & King and the Welfare of the Inhabitants of said Counties.

"These are to advise & require all the Inhabitants of Schinnectady and adjoining places to repair forthwith to the aforesaid City of Albany to receive their Rights and Priviledges & Liberties in such manner as if the Government of King James the 2d had never existed or any of his arbitrary Commissions or any of his Governors illegal acts had never been executed or done.


Jacob Milborne."

Upon which Adam Vrooman sent him this answer.


"Mr. Jacob Milborne, — Worthy Friend — I have just now received your letter. Firstly I am not a person of quality; Secondly, the Indians lie in divers squads in and around this place and should we all repair to Albany great disquiet would arise among the Savages to the general ruin of this Country; therefore please excuse me as I am a person of no power nor authority.

Your affectionate friend,

Adam Vrooman."

"By which letter it is Plainly Evident ye sd Milborne Designs ye Subversion of ye Governmt Confirmed by there Majts Proclamation of ye 14 feb. last, and thereby to Disturb ye Peace and Tranquility of there Majes Leige People Especially in this Juncture when the Indians are Round about us, who much Depend on the Present Magistracy that have with So much trouble, Pains and Cost Secured them to this governmt which if they should see yt ye authority here should be troden under foot would undoubtedly undertake Some Dangerous Design.

"And that it may be apparent to ye world yt ye Design was Laid at N. Yorke, ye following Letter writt by Hend. Cuyler one of there Councill of warr as they Term themselfs, to ye People of Schinnectady Desyreing there assistance, and that they would come to Albany, Telling them itt was Resolved upon that they should have no lesser Priviledges then they of Albany both in Tradeing and boalting which Jacob Milborne would Disclose unto them and Such like false notions doth Sufficiently Demonstrate."


N. Yorke, 2 Nov., 1689.

"Copiavera of a Letter from London.

"All Lands Plantations houses and Lots which were escheated (prys gemaekt) since the year 1690, are again restored by Act of Parliament. It was communicated to his Majesty who approved of it. It will be passed in a few days. Parliament is resolved to a public example of Sr Edmund Andros to the next Generation on account of his Arbitrary illegal proceedings. I break off herewith as it is too long to enlarge upon. Hearty respects to all Noble friends of Shinnectady. This goes by Mr. Vedder's hand.

I remain your friend and Servant,

Hend. Cuyler."

"P. S. We earnestly request the aid and diligence of the Noble gentlemen there for the promotion of the Public Good in assisting those whom we Send up at Albany's request being to the number of 50 men, of whom Jochim Staets is Commander; not doubting but the gentlemen of Schenechtady will be preferred to those of Albany in the approaching New Government as we pledge ourselves to speak in favor of your Diligence. I promise to send up to you the first Order which we expect from England.

"We expect a short answer from You by the next opportunity.

"Sir, we have this day resolved that you shall have no less Privileges than those of Albany in Trading and Bolting which Mr. Milborne will explain to you. We therefore request that you will exhibit all diligence in repairing together to Albany to welcome said Milborn." — Doc. Hist., II.

Early in November, 1689, news reached Albany "that Leysler is about to send up an armed force to take possession of the place and overthrow the government." Capt. Sander Glen, Jan Van Eps and Sweer Teunise Van Velsen of Schenectady, were opponents of Leisler and sustained the Convention to the last, Capt. Glen being one of the eight men appointed by the Convention to sign articles with Milbourne, Leisler's agent.

On the 25 Nov., Capt. Jonathan Bull arrived with 87 men from Connecticut, and on the 29th Lieut. Enos Talmage of Capt. Bull's company, "marched with 24 men to Shinnectady to keep yt Post as it was agreed upon by ye five gentlemen appointd by ye Convention and ye Capt. Bull and Jochim Staats." Dec. 9th, was ordered as a day of fasting and prayer. All was confusion at Albany; Mr. Staats who commanded Leysler's soldiers would not submit to the Convention, and send ten of his men to Schenectady as they wished, but went thither himself with some of his faction to stir up the people so that the Convention thought it necessary to send some one after him. (242-1)

Jan. 12, 1689/90. "While the convention were debating whether to submit to Joachim Staats as deputy of Leysler a letter comes from Capt. Sander Glen there Majies Justice of the Peace at Shinnectady Informing them how that there are five commissions come to Shinnectady from Captain Leysler for five justices of ye Peace, brought thither by Jeronimus Wendel & Gerrit Luycasse [Wyngaard]; — Ye Persons are Dowe Aukus, Ryer Jacobse [Schermerhorn], David Christoffelse, Myndert Wemp and Johannes Pootman; — and a commission to call the people together, to choose new Capt., Lieut., and Ensigne and Town Court, and yt ye sd five justices come here to-morrow to assort Mr Jochim Staats and to enter upon there office."

"The said Capt. Sanders [Glen] together with ye Lieut. and Ensigne and Sweer Teunisse, — members of ye Convention doe write to the gentn that there vote is not to obey Capt. Leysler's orders, But to protest against his Illegal proceedings." — Col. MSS., XXXVI.

"Albany ye 20th of January, 1689/90.

"The Mayor and Aldermen haveing consulted to day how to Procure some Christians and Indians to goe towards ye Great Lake to Lye as skouts for ye space of three weeks to give notice if ye ffrench, should come with an army to Invade there maj'es Territory, but could fynde none yt would goe under 2 shil 6d to 3 shil. per day, for Capt. Bull would suffer none of his men to goo alledging it Contrare to his Instructions, and while they were bussy to discouse sd affare ye following Indians came and sd as follows vizt: * * *

"Brethren — We have (been) sent by ye 40 Maquase Souldiers now at Shenechtady to acquaint yw that they are come to goe out as Skouts toward ye Lake and Otter creek to wath ye Designe of ye Deceiver ye govr of Canida to see if he will come and Invade our Country again & if we Discern any Progresse of his we have 4 Indians yt wee send forth Post to give yu & our people advertisemt * * * *

"The sd Indians were very thankful and sd they would withal speed goe to Shinnechtady & forward ye Compe & hasten them upon there march." — Doc. Hist., II, 86.

These preparations to "wath the Designe of ye Govr of Canida," miscarried; and before the Indian Scouts reached "ye Lake and Otter creek," the invading force had passed those points and the fatal blow was struck, destroying the village and scattering such of its inhabitants as were spared.


(233-1) Col. Doc., III, 118.

(233-2) Kinaquariones is the steep rocky hill on the north side of the river just above Hoffman's ferry and now called Towereoune.

(233-3) Land Papers, I, 47.

(234-1) Col. Doc., III, 144; [Sopes = Esopus or Kingston. — M'M.]

(234-2) Col. Doc., III, 145.

(234-3) Col. Doc., III, 155.

(234-4) Col. Doc., III, 190.

(234-5) Col. Doc., III, 272.

(234-6) Col. Doc., III, 363.

(235-1) Col. Doc., III, 477.

(235-2) Col. Doc., III, 479.

(235-3) Keman was an interpreter and perhaps an Indian; no white man of this name is known. — Col. Doc., III, 480.

(235-4) Col. Doc., III, 481.

(235-5) Col. Doc., III, 483.

(236-1) Col. Doc., III, 484.

(236-2) Col. Doc., III, 485-6.

(238-1) [Praying Indians. — The Caughnawaga band of Mohawks who had moved to the St. Lawrence River near Montreal, having been converted to Catholicism by the French priests. Their descendants still occupy the village of Caughnawaga on the Lachine Rapids. The Indian pilots so familiar to summer tourists are of this band. — M'M.]

(240-1) [Grinding meal at Schenectady was at this time claimed by Sweer Teunise Van Velsen as a monopoly, — but bolting could only be done in Albany and New York. — M'M.]

(242-1) Mortgage Book B.

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